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    中文姓名 卓品均
    英文姓名 Pinchun Cho
    電子信箱 不公開
    系所名稱(中) 化學研究所
    系所名稱(英) Chemistry
    學年度 96
    學期 1
    學位(中) 碩士
    學位(英) Master
    論文種類 碩士論文
    論文語文別 中文
    論文名稱(中) 新鮮蘋果果肉與果皮及加工蘋果汁多酚含量差異之研究
    論文名稱(英) A Study of the Variation of Polyphenol Content in the Pulp and Peel of Fresh Apples and Processed Apple Juice
    頁數 101
    論文目次 中文摘要 I
    Abstract III
    圖目錄 VII
    表目錄 IX
    第一章 前言 1
    第二章 文獻回顧 7
    2-1、 蘋果的介紹 7
    2-2、 蘋果汁 11
    2-3、 果蔬的主要化學成分和營養價值 12
    2-4、 名詞解釋 17
    2-5、 前人的研究 20
    2-6、 研究背景 40
    第三章 材料與方法 43
    3-1、 材料 43
    3-2、 分析原理 45
    3-3、 儀器架構 48
    3-4、 儀器應用 48
    3-5、 分析步驟 49
    3-6、 分析方法的探討 51
    3-7、 分析方法的討論與結果 61
    第四章 結果與討論 64
    4-1、 蘋果果皮多元酚含量 64
    4-2、 蘋果果肉多酚含量 67
    4-3、 加工蘋果果汁多酚含量 70
    4-4、 蘋果果肉與果皮多酚含量比較 73
    4-5、 不同品種蘋果多酚含量之探討 76
    4-6、 市售加工蘋果汁多酚含量之探討 77
    4-7、 蘋果多酚含量研究結果與文獻資料之比較 78
    第五章 結論 81
    第六章 參考文獻 84
    圖目錄

    圖 1、主要黃酮類之結構 5
    圖2、蘋果的多酚化合物 6
    圖 3、不同溶離液蘋果與西洋梨多酚化合物結果 22
    圖 4、利用酵素萃取果皮四種蘋果品種所含游離與結合多酚 23
    圖 5、四種蘋果品種測得脂溶性抗氧化能力游離與結合多酚抗氧化 23
    圖 6、”LIMONCELLA APPLE “果肉與果皮所含的多酚化合物 25
    圖 7、利用HPLC分析LIMONCELLA APPLE果皮與果肉多酚化合物 25
    圖 8、從蘋果果渣加工回收果膠與多酚 26
    圖 9、從四種品種蘋果表皮刮下的臘測得游離酚化合物 29
    圖 10、多酚化合物標準品混合 31
    圖 11、以HPLC分離蘋果果皮中多酚化合物 32
    圖 12、蘋果去皮的方式 50
    圖 13、兒茶素及咖啡因之化學構造圖 51
    圖 14、標準品最大吸收波長之探討 54
    圖 15、標準品與樣品之緩衝稀釋液(PH3) 54
    圖 16、兒茶素(CATECHIN)標準品線性的分析 55
    圖 17、不同品種蘋果果皮多酚含量分析結果 65
    圖 18、不同品種蘋果果肉多酚含量分析結果 69
    圖 19、加工蘋果果汁多酚含量 72
    圖 20、蘋果果肉與果皮多酚含量比較 74
    表目錄

    表 1、分析方法HPLC法與UV/VIS法之比較 4
    表 2、UV/VIS法分析準確性與穩定性等條件探討結果 4
    表 3、蘋果汁多酚分析的特性 21
    表 4、紐西蘭四種蘋果品種之蘋果果皮、果肉及果核測得之多酚化合物 27
    表 5、蘋果種子的多酚化合物 28
    表 6、不同品種的蘋果果皮和果肉維生素C、酚類化合物、類胡蘿蔔素和花青素之比較 29
    表 7、分析175蘋果種類的蘋果汁的部分特性 30
    表 8不同種蘋果汁中所含多酚化合物 33
    表 9、各種抗氧化物質的成份和他們的來源與效用 34
    表 10、水果中所含的維他命C(2-1) 35
    表 11、水果中所含的維生素C(2-2) 36
    表 12、蘋果果渣的多酚化合物 37
    表 13、蘋果汁樣品酚化合物的含量 37
    表 14、在兩種蘋果汁樣品中多酚的測定 37
    表 15、水果總酚類化合物含量 38
    表 16、紐西蘭四種蘋果品種之蘋果果皮、果肉及果核測得之多酚化合物 39
    表 17、兒茶素(CATECHIN)標準品線性 55
    表 18、標準液穩定性測定探討 56
    表 19、樣品穩定性分析探討 57
    表 20、加成回收試驗探討 58
    表 21、蘋果果皮分析穩定性之探討 60
    表 22、蘋果汁分析穩定性之探討 60
    表 23、HPLC法與UV/VIS法比較 63
    表 24、不同品種蘋果果皮多酚含量分析結果 66
    表 25、不同品種蘋果果肉多酚含量 68
    表 26、加工蘋果汁多酚含量 71
    表 27、蘋果果肉與果皮多酚含量比較 75
    表 28、不同種蘋果多酚研究結果與文獻分析結果的比較1 79
    表 29、不同種蘋果多酚研究結果與文獻分析結果的比較2 80




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    關鍵字(中)
  • 蘋果汁
  • 蘋果
  • 多酚
  • 紫外光光譜
  • HPLC
  • 關鍵字(英)
  • polyphenol
  • apple
  • apple juice
  • HPLC
  • 摘要(中) 中文摘要
    蘋果中含有豐富的營養素,其中包括維他命、礦物質、醣類、有機酸、多酚及黃酮類等,有許多文獻記載與研究證明蘋果具有獨特的保健功用,其中蘋果所含的多酚及黃酮類物質對預防心腦血管疾病及抑制癌細胞的增殖,它的抗氧化效果主要來自蘋果多酚。
    文獻資料報導以蔬菜和水果,愈靠近皮的部位營養含量愈多,抗氧化活性愈高,本研究針對新鮮的蘋果果皮與果肉及市售加工的蘋果果汁,分別測定其多酚物質的含量,樣品的取得依蘋果品種,富士蘋果、加拉蘋果、翠玉蘋果等品種取得16個新鮮蘋果樣品,市售加工蘋果果汁依廠牌不同取得14個加工蘋果果汁,分別進行多酚的含量分析並比較其所含的多酚化合物之差異。
    不同品種新鮮蘋果果皮多酚分析結果,富士蘋果果皮含量69~116mg/100g;玫瑰富士蘋果果皮含量175~196mg/100g;加拉蘋果果皮含量136~148 mg/100g;翠玉蘋果果皮含量79~89 mg/100g;以紐西蘭玫瑰富士196mg/100g含量最高。
    不同品種新鮮蘋果果肉多酚分析結果,富士蘋果果肉含量52~96mg/100g;玫瑰富士蘋果果肉含量81~88mg/100g;加拉蘋果果肉含量77~79 mg/100g;翠玉蘋果果肉含量67~76 mg/100g;以紐西蘭富士蘋果96 mg/100g含量最高。
    市售加工的蘋果果汁多酚含量39~136 mg/100ml;以BIOES 100% apple pure pressed juice 含量最高。
    分析的樣品除華盛頓翠玉蘋果果皮為綠色外,其他樣品果皮皆以紅色為主要色澤,微黃色參差,分析值最高者為紐西蘭富士玫瑰,在樣品間外觀的差異比較,紐西蘭富士玫瑰的果皮色澤比其他樣品果皮色澤鮮豔且深的紅色,其多酚分析值也較其他品種含量高。翠玉蘋果果皮為綠色,其果皮多酚的分析並不是最低。顏色愈深者所含多酚愈高,果皮分析結果隨著果皮色澤的深淺而有顯著的差異,而其中最明顯者為富士玫瑰。
    因此在食用蘋果時,不應該將多酚含量較高之果皮去除,應與蘋果果肉一起食用。而在選擇休閒性飲料時,加工蘋果汁比一般的碳酸飲料其營養價值更高,是健康的飲品選擇。在目前的消費市場許多攸關消費者的權益倍受注意,由其在健康與保健意識抬頭,因此在加工食品上有許多的把關,包括食品添加物的使用等皆有一定的法規,因此食品加工業者也會更注重加工食品的食用安全性及加入更多的健康的概念,因此加工蘋果汁在方便性及營養價值上是可以被接受的。
    摘要(英) Abstract
    There are abundant nutrients among the apples, including vitamin, mineral, sugar, organic acid, polyphenols and flavonoids etc. According to the references, it proves that apples own unique health care ability, such as polyphenols and flavonoids among apples can prevent the risk of cardiovascular disease and resist the growth of cancer cell. Besides, the ability of anti-oxidation comes from polyphenols in the apples.
    From the reports about vegetables and fruits, the part more closed to the peel of the fruits may contain more nutrients and the ability of anti-oxidation is better. This study is to analyze the content of polyphenols among peel and pulp of fresh apples and the processed apple juice products sold on the market. The fresh apples are from the different variety, which includes Fuji apple, Gala apple, Granny Smith apple etc. and the sum of samples are 16. Apple juice products are chosen from the different brands on the market, and total are 14 brands. Among the samples, we separately analyze the polyphenols contents and compare the difference between the chemical compounds’ composition.
    The polyphenols contents among the peel of various fresh apples were shown below in the sequence of quantity. NZ Rose of Fuji apple 175-196mg/100g, Gala apple 136-148mg/100g, Fuji apple 69-116mg/100g, Granny smith apple 67-76mg/100g. According to these data, we find that the NZ Rose of Fuji apple have the highest content of polyphenols among all varieties.
    Among the apple juice products sold on the market, we see that the BIOES 100% apple pure pressed juice contains the most polyphenols.
    Except the Washington Emerald apple, which’s peel is green, the major colors of others are red and some mixed with the yellow color. According to the comparison of appearance, NZ Rose of Fuji owns the darker red peel than others and also the polyphenols content is higher than other varieties. From the result of data analysis, the polyphenols content of peel shows a correlation with the peel color, and it’s obvious that the darker color of peel might have more polyphenols, and the NZ Rose of Fuji apple is the best example. However, the polyphenols content in green peel of the Granny Smith apple is not the lowest one.
    Therefore, you should not remove the peel with higher polyphenols, while you eat an apple. Besides, you had better to choose apple juice products, which contain higher nutrients than other acidic beverages as you shop. As the trends of health concept among the food products in the market, the security of processed food will be checked seriously and the regulation is well preformed, so that it’s more acceptable to buy a processed apple juice, which is with more convenience and higher nutrient values.
    指導教授
  • 葉華光 Hua-Guang Yak
  • 繳交日期 2008-02-28


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